CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (2024)

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces: The Importance of Clandestine Reporting

This study examines the role of clandestine reporting in CIA’s analysis of the Warsaw Pact from 1955 to 1985. The Soviet Union established itself as a threat to the West at the end of World War II by its military occupation of eastern European countries and the attempts of its armed proxies to capture Greece and South Korea. The West countered with the formation of NATO. While the West welcomed West Germany into NATO, the Soviets established a military bloc of Communist nations with the Warsaw Treaty of May 1955. This study continues CIA’s efforts to provide a detailed record of the intelligence derived from clandestine human and technical sources from that period. This intelligence was provided to US policy makers and used to assess the political and military balances and confrontations in Central Europe between the Warsaw Pact and NATO during the Cold War.

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Blind Memorandum forwarding Soviet Requirements to Resume Nuclear Testing, 1 September 1961.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607ab

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (2) 1961-09-01c.pdf212.37 KB

Blue Streak Intelligence on Warsaw Pact Exercises, Plans, Organization and Concepts of War in Centra

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60898

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (3) 1971-06-08.pdf552.17 KB

Bobruysk Army Barracks West and Associated Training Area, Bobruysk, USSR, Belorussia MD, Photographi

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6060f

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (4) 1964-07-02r.pdf446.25 KB

Bobruysk Army Maneuver Area, Bobruysk, USSR, Belorussia MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6066a

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (5) 1964-07-02s.pdf432.35 KB

Bogdanovka Ammunition Depot Bogdanovka, Kirovgradsk Oblast, USSR, Kiev MD, Photographic Interpretati

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60653

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (6) 1964-11-02a.pdf299.22 KB

Bolgrad Army Barracks AL-1, USSR, Baltic MD, Photographic Intelligence Report, CIA/DI Imagery Analy

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a605c8

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (7) 1966-01-01.pdf470.57 KB

Borisov Army Barracks South, Borisov, USSR, Belorussia MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC,

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60613

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (8) 1964-07-02v.pdf526.2 KB

Borisov Army Barracks, Borisov, USSR, Belorussia MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC, June

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6062f

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (9) 1964-06-02r.pdf451.85 KB

Borisov Army Barracks, Borisov, USSR, Belorussia MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC, May 1

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6063b

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (10) 1964-05-01w.pdf277.57 KB

Borisov Supply Depot and POL Storage Area, Borisov, USSR, Belorussia MD, Photographic Interpretation

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a606be

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (11) 1964-05-01u.pdf315.03 KB

Brezhnev’s Struggle for Dominance, CIA/DI/SRS Annex to Caesar, 5 December 1969.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a608f4

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (12) 1969-12-05b.pdf2.29 MB

Brody Army Barracks Al 2, USSR, Carpathian MD, Photographic Intelligence Report, CIA/DI Imagery Anal

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a606dc

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (13) 1965-09-01p.pdf273.83 KB

Brody Army Barracks, Brody, USSR, Carpathian MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC, August 19

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a606a1

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (14) 1964-08-01a.pdf367.02 KB

Bryansk Air Defense Headquarters and Army Barracks Southwest, Bryansk, USSR, Moscow MD, Photographic

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60728

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (15) 1965-05-01e.pdf370.61 KB

Bryansk Ordinance Depot Bryansk II, Bryansk, USSR, Moscow MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NP

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a606d8

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (16) 1965-05-01k.pdf527.82 KB

Buda Maltsevskaya Ammunition Depot Southeast, Buda, Kaluzhskaya Oblast, USSR, Moscow MD, Photographi

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60710

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (17) 1965-06-02t.pdf413.7 KB

Buy Ammunition Depot No 50, Buy Kostromsk Oblast, USSR, Moscow MD, Photographic Interpretation Repor

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a606cf

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (18) 1965-06-01w.pdf308.72 KB

Buy Ordnance Depot West, Buy, Kostromskaya Oblast, USSR, Moscow MD, Photographic Interpretation Repo

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6076f

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (19) 1965-07-01a.pdf372.28 KB

Capabilities of Soviet General Purpose Forces, CIA/DI/OSR Contribution to NIE 11-14-67, disseminated

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6057a

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (20) 1967-09-01.pdf3.41 MB

Capabilities of Soviet General Purpose Forces, NIE 11-14-65, CIA/DI/ONE, 21 October 1965.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60749

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (21) 1965-10-21.pdf1.48 MB

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CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces (2024)

FAQs

Why wasn't Yugoslavia in the Warsaw Pact? ›

Together with Yugoslavia, which broke with the Soviet Union before the Warsaw Pact was created, these three countries completely rejected the Soviet doctrine formulated for the Pact. Albania officially left the organization in 1968, in protest of its invasion of Czechoslovakia.

What was another internal security component of the Warsaw Pact? ›

Answer and Explanation: As part of the Warsaw Pact agreement, the alliance could use military force to intervene in the affairs of Warsaw Pact members. The pact technically said that members couldn't intervene in each other's internal affairs, but intervening as the collective Warsaw Pact was a loophole.

What communist country did not join the Warsaw Pact? ›

Yugoslavia did not join the Warsaw Pact.

Why wasn't NATO disbanded? ›

In fact, the members countries' commitment was so strong that it transcended the alliance's original purpose: the allies decided not to disband after the end of the Cold War in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Instead, NATO has expanded and has been substantially strengthened in the last 33 years.

Why did Stalin dislike Tito? ›

However, Stalin considered the prolific use of Communist symbols by Tito's Partisans to be problematic. This was because Stalin viewed his alliance with the United Kingdom and the United States as necessarily contrary to the Axis destruction of "democratic liberties".

What is the Russian equivalent of NATO? ›

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is an intergovernmental military alliance in Eurasia consisting of six post-Soviet states: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan, formed in 2002.

What is Article 4 of the Warsaw Pact? ›

They shall immediately consult with one another whenever, in the opinion of any one of them, a threat of armed attack on one or more of the Parties to the Treaty has arisen, in order to ensure joint defence and the maintenance of peace and security.

Was Albania part of the Warsaw Pact? ›

The Warsaw Pact was a collective defence treaty established by the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania (Albania withdrew in 1968).

Why wasn t Austria in Warsaw Pact? ›

The next day, Austria's parliament enacted a Declaration of Neutrality, whereby Austria would never join a military alliance such as NATO or the Warsaw Pact, or allow foreign troops be based within Austria.

Why did the Soviets not help Warsaw? ›

Simply put, the Soviets had no interest in assisting the Home Army to liberate Warsaw. The Soviets were planning to annex the eastern half of Poland, first occupied in 1939 under the provisions of the Molotov-Ribbentrop agreement, and to exercise control over the rest.

What was wrong with the Warsaw Pact? ›

By the 1980s, the Warsaw Treaty Organization was beset by problems related to the economic slowdown in all Eastern European countries. By the late 1980s political changes in most of the member states made the Pact virtually ineffectual.

Could NATO survive without the US? ›

It is doubtful that any other country in the alliance could play this role. NATO without the United States might limp along, but it is more likely that the alliance would collapse altogether.

Why hasn t Sweden joined NATO? ›

Sweden has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 7 March 2024. Before applying for NATO membership, Sweden had maintained a policy of neutrality in military affairs since the Napoleonic Wars, after which Sweden adopted a policy of "non-alignment in peace and neutrality in war".

Why did NATO decline Russia? ›

Relations between NATO and Russia soured in summer 2008 due to Russia's war with Georgia. Later the North Atlantic Council condemned Russia for recognizing the South Ossetia and Abkhazia regions of Georgia as independent states.

Why did NATO destroy Yugoslavia? ›

Humanitarian reasoning

The bombing campaign is sometimes referred to as a "humanitarian war" or a case of "humanitarian intervention". Part of NATO's justification for the bombing was to end the humanitarian crisis involving the large outflow of Kosovar Albanian refugees caused by Yugoslav forces.

Why was Yugoslavia neutral in the Cold War? ›

As the only European socialist state beyond the Eastern Bloc, and a country economically linked to Western Europe, Yugoslavia championed balancing and cautious equidistance towards United States, Soviet Union and China, in which non-alignment was perceived as a collective guarantee of the country's political ...

Why did Yugoslavia and Albania not come under the control of the Soviet Union? ›

Both countries established, during WWII, that they were willing and able to fight for their own independence, and did so with good effect. Attempting to control them would have brought the USSR nothing but trouble, with no obvious benefit to the USSR if they had been able to gain control.

Was Yugoslavia ever part of the Soviet Union? ›

While ostensibly a communist state, Yugoslavia broke away from the Soviet sphere of influence in 1948, became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961, and adopted a more de-centralized and less repressive form of government as compared with other East European communist states during the Cold War.

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